Measurements of sea water dynamic parameters (speed and directions of sea currents, tidal ranges, wave heights and waving periods) are performed with recorders mounted at autonomous buoy stations (ABS), which are deployed at given positions at sea. Deployment of ABS and their recovering are made with a vessel at deep waters, and with a boat in shallow waters. Deployment methods are various and depend on situation at place: with or without surface marker buoys, with underwater release device or with a cable only, etc.
Each deployment of ABS is followed by issue of appropriate warning for navigation.
Sea currents observations
By now more than 550 autonomous buoy stations equipped with recording current meters have been deployed by AMIGE at different sea depths in the Barents Sea and the Kara Sea. Total time of measurements of sea currents parameters exceeds 690 months.
Deployment of ABS at sea
Measurements of sea tidal ranges
Tide observations are carried out by AMIGE in both offshore and nearshore water areas. In deep waters tidal measurements are performed with water level recorders mounted at autonomous buoy stations. On the coasts adjacent to the studied areas temporary pile or staff tide gauges are arranged with reference of the gauge zero to Baltic system (BS77). Simultaneously weather stations are arranged to measure weather parameters. Sea tide observations are aimed to obtain tide corrections for soundings to be performed.
Instrumental measurements of tidal ranges were arranged in the Barents Sea, the Pechora Sea, the Kara Sea and the Caspian Sea, as well as in the Ob Bay, the Taz Bay and the Yenisei Gulf. Total time of tide observations exceeds 220 months.
Sea wave measurements
Deployed at autonomous buoy stations wave recorders operate in autonomous mode. Wave observations were carried out in offshore regions of the Barents Sea, the Pechora Sea, and the Kara Sea, as well as in the Ob and the Taz Bays. Total time of wave observations is about 50 months. The longest wave observations were performed in the area of the Shtokman gas condensate field.
Measurements of sea water physical parameters
Measurements of sea water physical parameters are performed with optional sensors installed in recording current meters, waves and tide recorders, which mounted at autonomous buoy stations. Sea water temperature and conductivity are measured across all water strata with NXIC CTD sensor (Falmouth Scientific Inc., USA) to define their vertical distribution in the study areas. In shallow waters and during ice survey such measurements are made with a handheld multi-meter YSI-63 (Falmouth Scientific Inc., USA).
Weather observations for meteorological parameters are performed when necessary in the regions where federal fixed weather stations are not available. In 1988 two weather stations were arranged by AMIGE for engineering applications on the western and eastern coasts of the Baydara Bay in the Kara Sea. Unique for northern seas weather station was arranged by AMIGE on jack-up rig Kolskaya. It has been active onboard the rig in navigation periods since 1985 to 1989. Total time of weather observations at all weather stations is about 460 months. They are performed with a standard set of meteorological equipment and AANII automatic weather station in compliance with applied weather observation practice.